Es liess sich nicht vermeiden, weil dies in ursächlichen Zusammenhang, mit der Ausländerpraxis der Stadt steht. , ZÃ¼rich: Limmat Verlag 2013, 143â185, 160. After being adopted, she came to Switzerland at the age of îve. See also Beatrix Mesmer, , testies to the extent to which had been inspired by the, Crossing Frontiers: Cultural Exchange and Conict. tal way in which migration has shaped contemporary society is over-, looked. historical perspective that we can recognise how profoundly the social. Against this backdrop, it comes as no surprise that Hardegger saw the, independence of Lesotho in 1966 critically and returned to Switzerland. Iris von Roten was the rst female, by a woman. Elisabeth, âSo zeigt sich, dass die zwei wohl wichtigsten strukturellen Besonderheiten der, Schweiz, die Einwanderung von Fremdarbeitern und der BildungsrÃ¼ckstand, sich beide. such experiences. This term was rst coined by, Kimberlé Crenshaw in a seminal paper in which she analysed the ‘par. der Frauenbewegung in den 1970er Jahren, in Bernet and Tanner, Mariarosa Dalla Costa had shown already in the 1970s how productive labour is funda-. Mirjana Morokvasic also critises a simplistic perception of, And of course, the argument is not that all âmigrantsâ are polit-, , Berlin: Panama Verlag 2016, 269â296; Walter, 27 (2015), 104â108; Rohit Jain, âSprichst Du Hindi?ââdie zweite Generation, terra cognita. fact, with regard to the early introduction of co-education in Swiss uni-, versities, we have to consider that ‘the role of Switzerland as a country, which granted political asylum inuenced the political climate in favour, enough to exclusively focus on women—and, for instance, forget the, male professors involved—when studying processes of changing gender, The rst woman to obtain a doctoral degree was Nadeschda Suslowa, in 1867. Migration, therefore, does not always imply empowerment and emancipation, but also generates new forms of social inequality. However, pupils wishing to take the entrance examination for, high school—i.e. my personal theory, because she was not from Innerrhoden […]’. Caroline Arni, Republikanismus und MÃ¤nnlichkeit in der Schweiz, in SVF, handicap to the introduction of female suffrage, as the reform of the. became a widespread reality in the Swiss working class. , ZÃ¼rich: Limmat Verlag 2013, 132â141, 139. also including some women of âforeignâ origin living in Switzerland. , Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1970. am Main: Helbing und Lichtenhahn 1990, 99–116. in the cradle by pigs, or at least seriously injured by them. Festschrift für Rudolf Braun zum 60. If, on the other hand, we start not from speculation, but from what is, given, what do we see when we look with a different perspective at what, happened? The fact that I was, to combine a biographical interview with a thematic exper. are perceived as âforeignersâ (e.g. I was not a historian either, but studied philosophy and German. https://www.sbî.admin.ch/dam/sbî/en/dokumente/2017/04/factsheet-hs.pdf. are good reasons not to equate wage labour per se with âemancipationâ, especially from a perspective critical of capitalism. to pay 300 francs for her new citizenship. the focus was on the speciîc effects of multiple forms of discrimination. During Tilo Frey’s term of ofce, which lasted until 1975, she. Konstantinowky alias Georges Constantin, 22 October 1945. Jovita Dos Santos Pinto, Spuren. Therefore, she worked for an, In what follows, see Simon Moreillon, Sophie Piccard (1904â1990), in Adler, Parzer, Slatkine 2014, 159â163; Natalia Tikhonov Sigrist, Deux Suissesses de l'Ã©tranger, pionniÃ¨res. Francesca Falk and Peppina Beeli, Regina Wecker im Gespräch, Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für Geschichte, Such an interrelation between migration and sociopolitical innovation can, be observed not only in the case of female suf, debate on how decisively the labour movement in Switzerland was inu. The colonial. In particular, before 1964, it was often not possible for âmigrantsâ to. Krippenbericht 1964, No. In Switzerland, such a reform came into ef, 1988. In sechzehn Selbstschilderungen. By invading his space, they forced him to pay, attention. The interview discusses the transformation of the Istanbul through the lens of political, This chapter introduces the theory of practice architectures and locates it within the theoretical terrain of practice theory. This can be shown, for instance, in a report published in a Swiss magazine, racy’, it is reported that—in the context of the imminent independence—, an aid organisation (the later NGO Helvetas) had invited twelve Nigerian, students to Switzerland to teach them about democracy. Her mother came from a French, Huguenot family (her mother also had a Danish father) and her father, from a Swiss family living in Russia. than their Swiss counterparts. damit wirklich nur solche Mütter berücksichtigt werden, die unbedingt arbeiten müssen’. Canadian Journal of African Studies/Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines. Child Care Policy at the Crossroads: Gender, , Italy: The Impact on Child Care, New York: Routledge, Organo mensile della Federazione delle Colonie Libere Italiane in Svizzera, …und es kamen auch Frauen. For instance, at its, annual meeting in 1964 the president of the, stated that nurseries were merely a stopgap for cases in which nursery, in 1947 condently stated that nurseries could and should be made. Eine soziologische Untersuchung der Lebens- und, A Mother’s Job: The History of Day Care, 1890–1960, , Zürich: Chronos 2005, 257–265. Moreover, when, studying emigration, its colonial contexts and, in particular, their rela-. division of tasks within the family, but also with respect to the right of residence. See also Linda Ratschiller and Siegfried Weichlein, schwarze KÃ¶rper als Missionsgebiet. with children of preschool age has, however, almost tripled since 1980. Questioni di metodo, in Badino and Inaudi, attraverso le Alpi. In 1851, Amand Goegg. But deînitions always, act simultaneously as headlights and blinkers. If the women’s requests, were ignored, they would handle the matter by launching a boycott or a, In what follows, see Judith Van Allen, ‘Sitting on a Man’: Colonialism and the Lost, strike or by ‘sitting on a man’. My . And they would, make it possible to capture the political impact of everyday occur. By redressing this bias, we are able to rethink the implications, of migration more broadly. Hat die gegenwÃ¤rtige Schweiz so wenig mit der vergangenen zu tun? Probably because of her prominent reputation, her punishment, was commuted to a prison term. Elisabeth Pletscher received an honorary doctorate degree from the University of St. Gallen in 1998. As late as 1990, the (Swiss) men residing in, the canton rejected female suffrage at the cantonal—as opposed to the, complaint was brought before the Swiss Federal Court, which eventually, declared this treatment of women to be unconstitutional, thus overrul-, ing the men’s decision. In showing how migration generates, gender innovation in different settings, this study combines a histori, cal perspective with a discussion of timely issues. of the family was generally expected to be the one who pays the bills. Berichterstattung in den Schweizer Printmedien Ã¼ber die Einwanderer aus der TÃ¼rkei. Julia Nentwich, Wiebke Poppen, Stefanie Schälin, and Franziska Vogt, The Same. The women’s traditional base of political. In addition, there were, nurseries established by the Italian state and by the, The theoretically conceivable scenario that more nurseries became members—without, an increase in the total number of nurseries in the country—seems according to the availa-, Deutschweizer Krippenwesen von 1945 bis 1985, Saisonnierkinder und ihre Eltern erzählen, stagionali: bambini clandestini, in Studi Emigrazione and Migration Studies XLVII, 180. The recordings are in my possession. replace some local rulers—women were thereafter excluded from most. Here again, conceptualising âthe, immigrant womanâ into an analysis of the womenâs movement remains a, Against this background, it would also be of interest to systemati-, cally investigate what happened to those couples in which the woman. A publication from 1977 on Turkish couples in W. that ‘in such cases where wives have migrated prior to their husbands, the wife becomes the principal breadwinner and the husband the primary, Cristina Allemann-Ghionda, Conclusioni, in, De Marchi Oechslin, Donne italiane in Svizzera. where both race and gender discrimination were involved. Regarding the. migration as îrst and foremost a âproblemâ. In an, interview in 2007, she recalled that before and after her election she was, repeatedly described as a dirty N*, as Jovita dos Santos Pinto has pointed, eration. became an ordinaria in 1943/44 at the University of Neuchâtel. In fact, a now-dominant, paradigm frequently leads to a situation where in public debate only, cross-border migration and movements of the âglobal proletariatâ are, perceived as migration. See also Beatrix Mesmer. not respond to a desire or a necessityâ. Albert O. Hirschman, Exit, Voice, and the Fate of the German Democratic Republic: between migration and mobility in the scientic terminology, book, my aim is not to dene terms in a watertight way, but to investi-, gate concretely what political and social effects can be produced by expe-. Festschrift fÃ¼r Rudolf. 1 Leistungsziel gewählt werden. Engagement italienischer Migrantinnen in Politik. In the years 1867–1914, between 5000 and 6000 women from the, rst Swiss university to allow women to attend, the professors open-. in fact the îrst municipality to introduce womenâs voting rights in 1958, and the îrst Swiss canton introduced womenâs suffrage in 1959. In her opinion, it can be assumed that racist privilege, in the colonies in fact stabilised traditional gender relationships between, European men and women, because white women were compensated for. Geburtstag. women and their proper roles among colonised and colonisers alike. Especially in those moments when the mobility of, Europeans increased due to colonial constellations, that of âtravellersâ. Entstehung und Entwicklung, Froebel and English Education: Perspectives on the, , Basel: Historisches Museum 2010, 15–23, 16. I remember that as a, schoolgirl, a friend told me that his parents did not like my mother as a. Mateos, Gleichgestellt? Das bedeutet, dass die Auszubildenden während drei Jahren in einem Betrieb der Fachrichtung Behindertenbetreuung, der Fachrichtung Kinderbetreuung oder neu ab 2021 der Fachrichtung Betagtenbetreuung lernen. Probably because of her prominent reputation, her punishment, was commuted to a prison term. The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the, chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line, to the material. else could have given me this assignment. For instance, Ghiringhelliâs statements were not checked, but repeated verbatim, nor, SchweizerInnen im Ausland. This question will, when. (*1918) - eine Österreicherin fordert das Stimmrecht, in Bräuniger, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Frauen im Appenzellerland, Brigitte Studer, Citizenship as Contingent National Belonging: Married W, Statement made by her daughter in a personal conversation, 23 December 2014: “Was, eigentlich den Ausschlag gab, dass sie für das Frauenstimmrecht kämpfte, war, dass sie das. spectives and thereby to challenge some fundamental assumptions. , Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften 2010, 197–219. See also the data for 1977 published in Die Stellung der Frau in, der Schweiz. such sources was for a long time simply taken over as is. Of course, Italian laws were not more progressive in ever, aspect. For instance, it has been showed, that in the USA, African-American mothers were more than twice as likely to be employed, New York: Oxford University Press 1999, The same applies to women ‘migrants’ to the. Although this information can be invaluable in preventing future child abuse, central registries may contain false or unsubstantiated accounts of child abuse, implicating innocent individuals. British ofcials attributed the Women’s W, women were to be subjected to taxation. 23, 2 (2013), 326–345, 329. ward neoliberal ideology in a time of austerityâ. taken for granted that mothers would stay at home. Die italienischen Immigranten waren zu jener Zeit Hauptgegenstand der öffentlichen Diskussionen und der politischen und kulturellen Sorgen der Schweizer, fanden jedoch selbst kaum Gehör. Although it was graded ‘outstanding’, the local publisher of the, And the fact that the University of Zurich recently hon-, Das Frauenstimmrecht in Appenzell Innerrhoden. I said: âWhat the hell is going on here?â and my sister-in-law replied: âWelcome to Switzerland, darling! The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the, chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line, to the material. Von einem gewissen T, gewisse Italienerkinder nicht mehr in der Krippe aufgenommen werden’. Nevertheless, it is important to emphasise such r, The approach proposed here does not merely consist in adding new, information to an established account, but, in fact, to change per-. the University of Zurich that she became familiar with the history of the labour movement. Migration in Basel heute, in Ribbert, hohe Beschäftigungsquote ausländischer Frauen trug vielmehr dazu bei, die Trennung, von Berufs- und Familienarbeit unter den einheimischen Frauen aufrechtzuerhalten’. Thomas became a pioneer in women’s educa-, asked many experts to name the twelve great-. Her research was car, out at an impressive pace, and she quickly became an authority in her, After her motherâs death in 1957, she devoted much time and many, resources to the publication of her motherâs literary and historical writ-, ing. For, example, in the case of Switzerland, a constitutional ban on minarets, has been legitimised by a prominent feminist with reference to womenâs, the âtrue clash of civilisationsâ would concern âgender equality and sexual. This, in turn, is hardly surprising, because if we were to look at the, lack of women’s voting rights, then Switzerland could no longer be, invited Nigerians could teach ‘democracy’ to Switzerland was obviously. One of the most important strengths of such, an approach is the possibility of switching between the roles of the inter-, ested but relatively silent listener, the involved, committed interlocutor, how the interviewees experienced historical change, but also how they, give their lives meaning in the present, deciding on what to include in, and exclude from their account. 94â97; Rohit Jain and Shalini Randeria, Wider den MigrationskomplexâPerspektiven auf. Katharina Walgenbach, Emanzipation als koloniale Fiktion: Zur sozialen Position, Weisser Frauen in den deutschen Kolonien, in, Compared with the Protestant missions, especially to the Basel Mission, little research, has been done on the Catholic mission in Switzerland. But only, from a perspective like the one adopted by Audenino and Corti can the, Schluchter, Die âNie Genug zu verwÃ¼nschende Wuth in Fremde LÃ¤nder zu gehen.â. Statement made in a personal conversation, 29 April 2018 and via e-mail, 2 May 2018. that her contribution went back to her âSwiss Youth Researchâ work in, in its publication series âInnerrhoder Schriftenâ. Monika Kneubühler, Anna Esther Tumarkin. in der Basler Mission im Kontext der frühen ökumenischen Bewegung (1901–1928), Linda Ratschiller is currently working on a PhD project at the University of Fribourg, that analyses how the Basel Mission shaped knowledge of hygiene both abroad and at. ing ground for the female suffrage movement. also including some women of ‘foreign’ origin living in Switzerland. nity developed pathological traits. The images or other third party material in this book are included in the bookâs Creative, Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. Turkey is experiencing a very rapid urbanization. Appenzeller und Schweizer BÃ¼rgerrecht verloren hatte mit ihrer Hochzeitâ. BeM ZB Log X 411: 26), 23 Febraury 1929 (1929). (2018); the lecture at the University for Seniors in Schaffhausen (2018); the keynote at the Summer University of the Social Democratic Party, of Switzerland in Chandolin (2017); the presentation at the âFribourg, and 2018) and at the âColloquium in Contemporary and Eastern, European Historyâ at the University of Ber, Switzerland as a Straggler in Relation to Gender Equality, âAs If I Had Made a Journey Back in Timeâ, Cooking and Sewing Courses for Girls, Geometry for Boys, Bring to the Fore Not Only Personal, But Also Structural, The Intersection of Discrimination and Privileges, The Relationship Between Spatial and Social Change, Migration and the Development of Nurseries, The Normalising Effect of an Infrastructure, Male Staff Members with a so-Called Migrant Background, Switzerland as a PioneerâAnd What Lies Behind It, The Oft-Omitted Impact of These âForeignâ Students, Feminist Forerunners Are not Unequivocal Heroines of History, The First Female Full Professor in SwitzerlandâBorn in the, The First Extraordinara in RomandieâBorn in the Russian, The First Extraordinara in German-Speaking, Female Suffrage in Switzerland and Its Relation to Migration, The First Formal Association Promoting Political and Legal, Unseen Democratic Deîcits in the Supposed Heartland of, Equal Rights Presented as Being Endangered by Migration, Migration and the Creation of New Ideas and Practices, Changing the Perspective Under Which Our Past Is T, the defects of a newly adopted home country become par, ble. Girls were, for instance, taught domestic skills by older, The aim was to instruct these women so that they would be able. Lehrvertrag und Bildungsbericht. Die, UniversitÃ¤ten der Schweiz und Deutschland angesichts des Studentinnenstroms aus dem, insurance company and later for a newspaper. As a student, Tumarkin had reected upon her not always easy experi-, ences as a ‘foreigner’ in Switzerland in the draft of a letter to her profes-, sor: ‘Then I went abroad and here I got to know real loneliness, I often. In the annual report from, 1964 of the St. Leonhard nurseries in Basel, for instance, we read: ‘In, the case of each admission, the material circumstances are […] checked, ‘Leider hatten wir auch im vergangenen Jahre ein Zurückgehen der Kinderzahlen in, Kauf zu nehmen. They argued that the village community was legally authorised to set up, its voting register. their gender discrimination on another level. These findings suggest that encouraging caregivers to reflect on their interactions with the children in their care fosters caregivers' ability to see from the child's perspective in an open and accepting way. Interview mit Irena Brežná und Blend Hamza, Jakob Tanner and Brigitte Studer, Konsum und Distribution, in Halbeisen, Müller. With regard to the specic resources of the so-called second generation, see Rohit Jain, Kosmopolitische Pioniere: ‘Inder_innen der zweiten Generation’ aus der Schweiz zwischen, Assimilation, Exotik und globaler Moderne, For instance, assertions have been made which become much more com-. necessary impulses for change came from the outside. In 1921, she became a, Swiss citizen. Yvonne Riaño, Drawing New Boundaries of, Participation: Experiences and Strategies of Economic Citizenship Among Skilled Migrant, Floya Anthias, Transnational Mobilities, Migration Research and Intersectionality, to be aware that ‘[c]hoosing this particular point of origin erases the synergy of intersec-, tionality’s critical inquiry and critical praxis, and recasts intersectionality as just another. One reason, for this was that placing oneâs children with a Swiss family tended to be, less expensive than any of the available nurseries. There, she fought for, among other things, a hospital emergency centre for rape victims and for, Her experience of migration shaped her political engagement. For example, when I went to school, all children, had to take an examination at the end of grade six, in order to decide, who would go to secondary school and who would go to the so-called, repeat the examination after one year. Giovanna Meyer Sabino, Donne in emigrazione, in Halter and Casagrande, iani in Svizzera. See also Nicole Cox and Silvia Federici, The Reproduction of Labor Power in the Global Economy and the, Zwischen ‘Notbehelf’ und familienergänzender Institution. of the 1848 Revolution, who had rented rooms in her parents’ house. women’s struggle ‘and may have come across that strategy which seemed. Frauen und Frauenorganisationen in der Schweiz des 19. In the course of these years, nurser, expanded because mainstream values had changed, but because there was, a practical need for such services. Nelly Valsangiacomo and Luigi Lorenzetti, Mariarosa Dalla Costa and Silvia Federici called for a different concept of, work that could not be reduced to subcontracted work and claimed that, the emancipation of women was often discussed exclusively with regard, to female wage-employment and called for an egalitarian division of care, that ‘migrant’ mothers were often obliged to work, as otherwise their, to stay at home, this was perceived as a sign of social advancement by, some—a phenomenon also observed in the Swiss working class at that, It is impossible to know how many nurseries were established in these, years because they were founded by various entities such as compa-, nies, private organisations, and municipalities. in the early 1990s, girls were sent to cooking, courses, whereas the boys were taught geometry and technical draw-, ing. This was also the case because, for a very long time, a child was likely, to be prevented from attending a nursery if ther, that the family depended on the extra income. ration of food was thus put at the service of security policy: war-related, food shortages were to be avoided, and the percentage of men t for, service was to be increased through a good diet. She was one of the rst girls in the local, high school and would have liked to study medicine, but for nancial rea, According to her, she questioned the exclusion of women from the, Polish woman, who was married to one of her cousins, opened her, eyes. Introduction (1958), in: amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc/20036530.pdf?ID, Gleichberechtigung der Frauen in der Schweiz 1945–1971, This was also the case with regard to the argument that only women who moved to. All content in this area was uploaded by Francesca Falk on Mar 06, 2019, This series explores the history of migration, from antiquity to the, present day and across a wide geographical scope. was a teacher in our village and who lost her job when she got married. Three of these contributions are reflections on the issue through a personal experiential lens. âDas Problem der Schweiz ist ihr DÃ¼nkelâ. From such a perspective, restric-. domesticity in constant differentiation from racialised others. Laura Agustin, Forget Victimization: Granting Agency to Migrants, however, many facets of the historical relationship between gender and, migration remain unexplored. 5, 3â9, here 7. âVon ihrer eigenen Sozialisation her ist es eben absolut normal, dass Kinder in die. Once our attention has been drawn to such historical processes, important aspects of the past appear in a new light. indigenous peoples living thereâabove all the Sioux. Indeed, it can be argued that it was the presence of this, infrastructure that, together with other inuences, led to a progressive, life—whether adopted voluntarily or involuntarily—and the new infra-, structure that emerged to cater to these needs assumed a force of their, plete the revised picture of the relation between migration and gender, innovation in Switzerland, this chapter ends with an examination of the, personnel working in nurseries, this time focusing specically on male, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-01626-5_4, The rst institution declared to be a ‘nursery’ (crèche) was opened in, Paris in 1844. Studien zur neueren Gesellschaftsgeschichte. and the Other: Male Childcare Workers Managing Identity Dissonance, Kindertageseinrichtungen. ‘from hundreds of thousands to tens of thousands’ by 2015 (Mulley and Sachrajda 2011). She came from Liberia and had lived, for two years in Washington, DC, before moving to Switzerland. Helma Lutz, Gender in the Migratory, earlier than the man and, as a consequence, had already begun working, outside the home before he arrived, therefore seems likely to prove fr. sify ‘migrants’ as belonging—can provide specic resources. Brigitte Studer has brilliantly explained these procedures in her essay on, practices and controversies surrounding the special legal treatment of, women according to their marital status. See also Damir Skenderovic, Die Macht, rechtspopulistischer Aussenseiter in den 1960er bis 1980er Jahren, in Skenderovic and, Assimilationsreife der AuslÃ¤nder in der Schweiz. information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. However, she was, denied appointment to a full professorship, on the grounds of her gen-, Anna Tumarkin explained philosophy in its historical contexts and, analysed life from philosophical, theological, anthropological, and psy-, named after Tumarkin in Bern. Lebensentwürfe zwischen Wunsch und Wirklichkeit (2016), in: wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Bericht_sotomo_KPT.pdf. Boston: Houghton Mifin 1987, 375–396, 375. It is quite well-known, that the experience of migration can sometimes also lead to an increased, this book, the existence of two genders is not questioned. section, different kinds of discrimination meet. Soa Kovalevskaia: Marie Heim-Vögtlin - die erste Schweizer Ärztin (1845–1916). 1–14. women could pursue regular studies at universities open to both sexes. , Zürich: Limmat Verlag 2013, 143–185, 156. Widerstand gegen Fremdenhass.